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Understanding Memoization

After reading the In Depth introduction to Elementary, and Understanding Keys, you understand that Elementary is designed for the dynamic nature of your audio application. It handles that dynamic change through repeated calls to the render() function, which is addressed by the internal reconciler.

Recall, from the In Depth guide, what happens when we make a call to render():

This kicks off the process of reconciliation. The renderer will carefully step through the new graph to identify similarities and differences between the new graph and the one that's currently making sound. Along the way, it applies a series of optimizations to ensure that the graph that actually makes noise is highly efficient. As the renderer reconciles the two graphs, it precisely applies only the required changes to the underlying platform to ensure that what you're hearing reflects the new graph that you've described.

This process of reconciling changes between two graphs is a notoriously difficult problem, and as you can imagine, it compounds with the scale of your application. Let's consider a hypothetical graph below to illustrate a very real example of rendering a new graph to apply a constant value change. We start with a graph like the following.

Image of an audio graph with a blue leaf node

Now let's imagine that this graph represents the audio process we want, and that we've already called render() to realize this graph, and we're hearing the expected results. Then a user input comes along, perhaps the user has dragged a slider which should change the cutoff frequency of a particular filter somewhere in our graph. In that case, we understand intuitively that the only real change here is one number: changing from the cutoff frequency that it was already at to the new value that the user has set. In Elementary, we handle a change like this in the same way that we might handle a much larger change: we build the graph that represents how our app should sound now, we call render() and we let Elementary handle the rest. For illustration, let's look at our new desired graph.

Image of the same audio graph, now with a red leaf node

We can see that the graph is identical, except that the node that used to be blue is now red. This is the only change we're asking for. But now we also see that by building this new graph and calling render(), Elementary has to go and compare this graph to the prior graph to find the change that went from blue to red. How wasteful!

This is where part of the functional, declarative nature of Elementary really shines. By using "Composite" nodes, which we detail in the following section, we can lean into the composability of pure functions to sort of "hide" huge portions of our graph from the reconciliation process– even in the sense that we don't actually have to construct large parts of the graph if we know already that the changes we're looking for haven't occured within those subgraphs. Through the use of composite nodes, then, we can easily prepare Elementary to look at particular, small sections of our graph to find and apply any necessary changes.

Composite Nodes

To describe what a Composite node actually is, let's recall the createNode function from @elemaudio/core. Most of the standard library functions that you use regularly, el.*(), are thin wrappers around a call to createNode exercising the interface that takes a string-type kind. The nodes that these calls produce are called "Primitive" nodes, which ultimately describe exactly what the reconciler needs to consider when trying to identify changes. But createNode can also be used with a function-type argument, which is how we create a "Composite" node. As an example,

function MyComposite({props, context, children}): NodeRepr_t {
return resolve(el.add(
el.blepsaw(el.mul(1.01, children[0])),

function detunedSaws(props: Record<string, unknown>, frequency: NodeRepr_t | number) : NodeRepr_t {
return createNode(MyComposite, props, [frequency]);

With this example, you could use the detunedSaws helper the same way you might use the core library:

core.render(el.lowpass(800, 0.707, detunedSaws({}, 440)));

Now the first interesting detail of using Composite nodes reveals itself: note that by calling createNode and passing our MyComposite function, we are never explicitly invoking MyComposite itself. This remains true in the internals of the reconciler too: if Elementary doesn't need to invoke MyComposite, it simply won't, meaning that we can both skip the step of reconciling whatever subgraph is produced by MyComposite, and skip making it in the first place.

Mem Table Lookups

This leads neatly into the next question: how does Elementary know when it needs to invoke MyComposite? Here we encounter the implicit memoization feature of Composite nodes. Note that our call to createNode carried two other arguments: a props object, and an array of child nodes. These are exactly the same inputs that we destructure in the definition of MyComposite: function MyComposite({props, context, children}), and here, the beauty of pure functions reveals itself. Elementary uses memoization during the render pass to check: are these the same props and the same children that we saw the last time around? If they are, we know already that we have rendered whatever subgraph our MyComposite function yields, and that the change we're looking for isn't in there. If the props or children are new, then we invoke the function and consider that subgraph in the reconciliation process.

Advanced (memoKey)

Very often, you won't even need to really think about this, especially if you keep to a general rule of using simple, shallow props objects when using createNode for Composite nodes. However, if you really want to squeeze some extra performance out of this operation, you can use the reserved prop called memoKey.

function detunedSaws(props: Record<string, unknown>, frequency: NodeRepr_t | number) : NodeRepr_t {
return createNode(MyComposite, Object.assign(props, {memoKey: 'someUniqueIdentifier'}), [frequency]);

The memoKey prop is to be used only as a special directive when the props you're passing to createNode are actually complex and difficult to compare. When you pass memoKey into createNode via the props object, Elementary will only consider the value of that memoKey (and the prior value of that key) to decide whether or not the Composite node should be visited during the reconciliation pass. This key pairs nicely with the idea of versioned state or "state IDs," if your application uses them, but we recommend this feature only for advanced and specific use cases.